Colorado Criminal Law – A Listing of Key Domestic Violence Laws and Related Statutes

Colorado Criminal Law – A Listing of Key Domestic Violence Laws and Related Statutes

Title 18 Part 8. Colorado Revised Statutes – Domestic Violence.

§ 18-6-800.3 Definitions.  

As used in this part 8, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) “Domestic violence” means an act or threatened act of violence upon a person with whom the actor is or has been involved in an intimate relationship. “Domestic violence” also includes any other crime against a person, or against property, including an animal, or any municipal ordinance violation against a person, or against property, including an animal, when used as a method of coercion, control, punishment, intimidation, or revenge directed against a person with whom the actor is or has been involved in an intimate relationship.

(2) “Intimate relationship” means a relationship between spouses, former spouses, past or present unmarried couples, or persons who are both the parents of the same child regardless of whether the persons have been married or have lived together at any time.

§ 18-6-801 Domestic violence – sentencing.

(1)(a) In addition to any sentence that is imposed upon a person for violation of any criminal law under this title, any person who is convicted of any crime, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by the court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), or any crime against property, whether or not such crime is a felony, when such crime is used as a method of coercion, control, punishment, intimidation, or revenge directed against a person with whom the actor is or has been involved in an intimate relationship shall be ordered to complete a treatment program and a treatment evaluation that conform with the standards adopted by the domestic violence offender management board as required by section 16-11.8-103(4), C.R.S. If an intake evaluation conducted by an approved treatment program provider discloses that sentencing to a treatment program would be inappropriate, the person shall be referred back to the court for alternative disposition.

(b) The court may order a treatment evaluation to be conducted prior to sentencing if a treatment evaluation would assist the court in determining an appropriate sentence. The person ordered to undergo such evaluation shall be required to pay the cost of the treatment evaluation. If such treatment evaluation recommends treatment, and if the court so finds, the person shall be ordered to complete a treatment program that conforms with the standards adopted by the domestic violence offender management board as required by section 16-11.8-103(4), C.R.S.

(c) Nothing in this subsection (1) shall preclude the court from ordering domestic violence treatment in any appropriate case.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to persons sentenced to the department of corrections.

(3) A person charged with the commission of a crime, the underlying factual basis of which includes an act of domestic violence as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), shall not be entitled to plead guilty or plead nolo contendere to an offense which does not include the domestic violence designation required in section 16-21-103, C.R.S., unless the prosecuting attorney makes a good faith representation on the record that such attorney would not be able to establish a prima facie case that the person and the alleged victim were currently or formerly involved in an intimate relationship if the defendant were brought to trial on the original domestic violence offense and upon such a finding by the court. The prosecuting attorney’s record and the court’s findings shall specify the relationship in the alleged domestic violence case which the prosecuting attorney is not able to prove beyond a reasonable doubt and the reasons therefor. No court shall accept a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to an offense which does not include the domestic violence designation required in section 16-21-103, C.R.S., when the facts of the case indicate that the underlying factual basis includes an act of domestic violence as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1) unless there is a good faith representation by the prosecuting attorney that he or she would be unable to establish a prima facie case if the defendant were brought to trial on the original offense.

(4) No person accused or convicted of a crime, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by the court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), shall be eligible for home detention in the home of the victim pursuant to section 18-1.3-105 or 18-1.3-106 or for deferred prosecution pursuant to section 18-1.3-101. Nothing in this subsection (4) is intended to prohibit a court from ordering a deferred sentence for a person accused or convicted of a crime, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by the court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1).

(5) Before granting probation, the court shall consider the safety of the victim and the victim’s children if probation is granted.

(6) Nothing in this section shall preclude the ability of a municipality to enact concurrent ordinances.

(7) In the event a person is convicted in this state on or after July 1, 2000, of any offense which would otherwise be a misdemeanor, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by the court on the record to include an act of domestic violence as defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), and that person has been three times previously convicted, upon charges separately brought and tried and arising out of separate and distinct criminal episodes, of a felony or misdemeanor or municipal ordinance violation, the underlying factual basis of which was found by the court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, the prosecuting attorney may petition the court to adjudge the person an habitual domestic violence offender, and such person shall be convicted of a class 5 felony. If the person is adjudged an habitual domestic violence offender, the court shall sentence the person pursuant to the presumptive range set forth in section 18-1.3-401 for a class 5 felony. The former convictions and judgments shall be set forth in apt words in the indictment or information.

§ 18-6-801.5. Domestic violence – evidence of similar transactions.

(1) The general assembly hereby finds that domestic violence is frequently cyclical in nature, involves patterns of abuse, and can consist of harm with escalating levels of seriousness. The general assembly therefore declares that evidence of similar transactions can be helpful and is necessary in some situations in prosecuting crimes involving domestic violence.

(2) In criminal prosecutions involving domestic violence in which the defendant and the victim named in the information have engaged in an intimate relationship as of the time alleged in the information, evidence of any other acts of domestic violence between the defendant and the victim named in the information, and between the defendant and other persons, constitute other acts or transactions for the purposes of this section, and the court may authorize the admission of evidence as provided in subsection (3) of this section.

(3) The proponent of evidence of other acts or transactions under this section shall advise the trial court by offer of proof of such evidence and shall specify whether the evidence is offered to show a common plan, scheme, design, identity, modus operandi, motive, or guilty knowledge or for some other purpose.

(4) Upon the offer of proof under subsection (3) of this section, the trial court shall determine whether the probative value of the evidence of similar acts or transactions is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice to the defendant, confusion of the issues, or misleading of the jury if the evidence is allowed or by considerations of undue delay, waste of time, or needless presentation of cumulative evidence.

(5) Upon admitting evidence of other acts or transactions into evidence pursuant to this section and again in the general charge to the jury, the trial court shall direct the jury as to the limited purpose for which the evidence is admitted and for which the jury may consider it.

§ 18-6-801.6. Domestic violence – summons and complaint.

Any person completing or preparing a summons, complaint, summons and complaint, indictment, information, or application for an arrest warrant shall indicate on the face of such document whether the facts forming the basis of the alleged criminal act, if proven, could constitute domestic violence as defined in section 18-6-800.3 (1).

§ 18-6-802.5 Domestic violence – local board – treatment programs – liability immunity.

Any defendant who is sentenced to a treatment program pursuant to section 18-6-801 or who is ordered to complete an evaluation pursuant to section 18-6-801 (1) shall pay for the evaluation and treatment programs on a sliding fee basis, as provided in the standardized procedures for the treatment evaluation of domestic violence offenders and the guidelines and standards for a system of programs for the treatment of domestic violence offenders adopted by the domestic violence offender management board pursuant to section 16-11.8-103, C.R.S.

   
§ 18-6-803.5. Crime of violation of a protection order – penalty – peace officers’ duties.

(1) A person commits the crime of violation of a protection order if, after the person has been personally served with a protection order that identifies the person as a restrained person or otherwise has acquired from the court or law enforcement personnel actual knowledge of the contents of a protection order that identifies the person as a restrained person, the person:

(a) Contacts, harasses, injures, intimidates, molests, threatens, or touches the protected person or protected property, including an animal, identified in the protection order or enters or remains on premises or comes within a specified distance of the protected person, protected property, including an animal, or premises or violates any other provision of the protection order to protect the protected person from imminent danger to life or health, and such conduct is prohibited by the protection order; or

(b) Except as permitted pursuant to section 18-13-126(1)(b), hires, employs, or otherwise contracts with another person to locate or assist in the location of the protected person.

(1.5) As used in this section:

(a) “Protected person” means the person or persons identified in the protection order as the person or persons for whose benefit the protection order was issued.

(a.5)(I) “Protection order” means any order that prohibits the restrained person from contacting, harassing, injuring, intimidating, molesting, threatening, or touching any protected person or protected animal, or from entering or remaining on premises, or from coming within a specified distance of a protected person or protected animal or premises or any other provision to protect the protected person or protected animal from imminent danger to life or health, that is issued by a court of this state or a municipal court, and that is issued pursuant to:

(A) Article 14 of title 13, C.R.S., section 18-1-1001, section 19-2-707, C.R.S., section 19-4-111, C.R.S., or rule 365 of the Colorado rules of county court civil procedure;

(B) Sections 14-4-101 to 14-4-105, C.R.S., section 14-10-107, C.R.S., section 14-10-108, C.R.S., or section 19-3-316, C.R.S., as those sections existed prior to July 1, 2004;

(C) An order issued as part of the proceedings concerning a criminal municipal ordinance violation; or

(D) Any other order of a court that prohibits a person from contacting, harassing, injuring, intimidating, molesting, threatening, or touching any person, or from entering or remaining on premises, or from coming within a specified distance of a protected person or premises.

(II) For purposes of this section only, “protection order” includes any order that amends, modifies, supplements, or supersedes the initial protection order. “Protection order” also includes any restraining order entered prior to July 1, 2003, and any foreign protection order as defined in section 13-14-104, C.R.S.

(b) “Registry” means the computerized information system created in section 18-6-803.7 or the national crime information center created pursuant to 28 U.S.C. sec. 534.

(c) “Restrained person” means the person identified in the order as the person prohibited from doing the specified act or acts.

(2)(a) Violation of a protection order is a class 2 misdemeanor; except that, if the restrained person has previously been convicted of violating this section or a former version of this section or an analogous municipal ordinance, or if the protection order is issued pursuant to section 18-1-1001, the violation is a class 1 misdemeanor.

(a.5) A second or subsequent violation of a protection order is an extraordinary risk crime that is subject to the modified sentencing range specified in section 18-1.3-501(3).

(c) Nothing in this section shall preclude the ability of a municipality to enact concurrent ordinances. Any sentence imposed for a violation of this section shall run consecutively and not concurrently with any sentence imposed for any crime which gave rise to the issuing of the protection order.

(3)(a) Whenever a protection order is issued, the protected person shall be provided with a copy of such order. A peace officer shall use every reasonable means to enforce a protection order.

(b) A peace officer shall arrest, or, if an arrest would be impractical under the circumstances, seek a warrant for the arrest of a restrained person when the peace officer has information amounting to probable cause that:

(I) The restrained person has violated or attempted to violate any provision of a protection order; and

(II) The restrained person has been properly served with a copy of the protection order or the restrained person has received actual notice of the existence and substance of such order.

(c) In making the probable cause determination described in paragraph (b) of this subsection (3), a peace officer shall assume that the information received from the registry is accurate. A peace officer shall enforce a valid protection order whether or not there is a record of the protection order in the registry.

(d) The arrest and detention of a restrained person is governed by applicable constitutional and applicable state rules of criminal procedure. The arrested person shall be removed from the scene of the arrest and shall be taken to the peace officer’s station for booking, whereupon the arrested person may be held or released in accordance with the adopted bonding schedules for the jurisdiction in which the arrest is made, or the arrested person may be taken to the jail in the county where the protection order was issued. The law enforcement agency or any other locally designated agency shall make all reasonable efforts to contact the protected party upon the arrest of the restrained person. The prosecuting attorney shall present any available arrest affidavits and the criminal history of the restrained person to the court at the time of the first appearance of the restrained person before the court.

(e) The arresting agency arresting the restrained person shall forward to the issuing court a copy of such agency’s report, a list of witnesses to the violation, and, if applicable, a list of any charges filed or requested against the restrained person. The agency shall give a copy of the agency’s report, witness list, and charging list to the protected party. The agency shall delete the address and telephone number of a witness from the list sent to the court upon request of such witness, and such address and telephone number shall not thereafter be made available to any person, except law enforcement officials and the prosecuting agency, without order of the court.

(4) If a restrained person is on bond in connection with a violation or attempted violation of a protection order in this or any other state and is subsequently arrested for violating or attempting to violate a protection order, the arresting agency shall notify the prosecuting attorney who shall file a motion with the court which issued the prior bond for the revocation of the bond and for the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of the restrained person if such court is satisfied that probable cause exists to believe that a violation of the protection order issued by the court has occurred.

(5) A peace officer arresting a person for violating a protection order or otherwise enforcing a protection order shall not be held criminally or civilly liable for such arrest or enforcement unless the peace officer acts in bad faith and with malice or does not act in compliance with rules adopted by the Colorado supreme court.

(6)(a) A peace officer is authorized to use every reasonable means to protect the alleged victim or the alleged victim’s children to prevent further violence. Such peace officer may transport, or obtain transportation for, the alleged victim to shelter. Upon the request of the protected person, the peace officer may also transport the minor child of the protected person, who is not an emancipated minor, to the same shelter if such shelter is willing to accept the child, whether or not there is a custody order or an order allocating parental responsibilities with respect to such child or an order for the care and control of the child and whether or not the other parent objects. A peace officer who transports a minor child over the objection of the other parent shall not be held liable for any damages that may result from interference with the custody, parental responsibilities, care, and control of or access to a minor child in complying with this subsection (6).

(b) For purposes of this subsection (6), “shelter” means a battered women’s shelter, a friend’s or family member’s home, or such other safe haven as may be designated by the protected person and which is within a reasonable distance from the location at which the peace officer found the victim.

(7) The protection order shall contain in capital letters and bold print a notice informing the protected person that such protected person may either initiate contempt proceedings against the restrained person if the order is issued in a civil action or request the prosecuting attorney to initiate contempt proceedings if the order is issued in a criminal action.

(8) A protection order issued in the state of Colorado shall contain a statement that:

(a) The order or injunction shall be accorded full faith and credit and be enforced in every civil or criminal court of the United States, another state, an Indian tribe, or a United States territory pursuant to 18 U.S.C. sec. 2265;

(b) The issuing court had jurisdiction over the parties and subject matter; and

(c) The defendant was given reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard.

(9) A criminal action charged pursuant to this section may be tried either in the county where the offense is committed or in the county in which the court that issued the protection order is located, if such court is within this state.

§ 18-6-803.6. Duties of peace officers and prosecuting agencies – preservation of evidence.

(1) When a peace officer determines that there is probable cause to believe that a crime or offense involving domestic violence, as defined in section 18-6-800.3 (1), has been committed, the officer shall, without undue delay, arrest the person suspected of its commission pursuant to the provisions in subsection (2) of this section, if applicable, and charge the person with the appropriate crime or offense. Nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed to require a peace officer to arrest both parties involved in an alleged act of domestic violence when both claim to have been victims of such domestic violence. Additionally, nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed to require a peace officer to arrest either party involved in an alleged act of domestic violence when a peace officer determines there is no probable cause to believe that a crime or offense of domestic violence has been committed. The arrested person shall be removed from the scene of the arrest and shall be taken to the peace officer’s station for booking, whereupon the arrested person may be held or released in accordance with the adopted bonding schedules for the jurisdiction in which the arrest is made.

(2) If a peace officer receives complaints of domestic violence from two or more opposing persons, the officer shall evaluate each complaint separately to determine if a crime has been committed by one or more persons. In determining whether a crime has been committed by one or more persons, the officer shall consider the following:

(a) Any prior complaints of domestic violence;

(b) The relative severity of the injuries inflicted on each person;

(c) The likelihood of future injury to each person; and

(d) The possibility that one of the persons acted in self-defense.

(3) (a) A peace officer is authorized to use every reasonable means to protect the alleged victim or the alleged victim’s children to prevent further violence. Such peace officer may transport, or obtain transportation for, the alleged victim to shelter. Upon the request of the protected person, the peace officer may also transport the minor child of the protected person, who is not an emancipated minor, to the same shelter if such shelter is willing to accept the child, whether or not there is a custody order or an order for the care and control of the child or an order allocating parental responsibilities with respect to the child and whether or not the other parent objects. A peace officer who transports a minor child over the objection of the other parent shall not be held liable for any damages that may result from interference with the custody, parental responsibilities, care, and control of or access to a minor child in complying with this subsection (3).

(b) For purposes of this subsection (3), “shelter” means a battered women’s shelter, a friend’s or family member’s home, or such other safe haven as may be designated by the protected person and which is within a reasonable distance from the location at which the peace officer found the victim.

(4) (a) The arresting agency shall make reasonable efforts to collect and preserve any pertinent evidence until the time of final disposition of the matter, including, but not limited to, the following:

(I) Any dispatch tape recording relating to the event;

(II) Any on-scene video or audio tape recordings;

(III) Any medical records of treatment of the alleged victim or the defendant; and

(IV) Any other relevant physical evidence or witness statements.

(b) However, in the absence of bad faith, any failure to collect or preserve any evidence listed in paragraph (a) of this subsection (4) shall not be grounds to dismiss the matter.

(4.5) When a peace officer responds to a call or is otherwise responding to a report about an alleged offense involving domestic violence, as defined in section 18-6-800.3 (1), or other domestic dispute, the officer shall include in his or her written or oral report concerning such incident whether children may have seen or heard the alleged offense; except that, in the absence of bad faith, the failure of a peace officer to note that a child may have seen or heard the alleged offense shall not be grounds to dismiss the matter.

(5) A peace officer shall not be held civilly or criminally liable for acting pursuant to this section if the peace officer acts in good faith and without malice.

§ 18-6-803.7 Central registry of protection orders – creation.

(1) As used in this section:

(a) “Bureau” means the Colorado bureau of investigation.

(b) “Protected person” means the person or persons identified in the protection order as the person or persons for whose benefit the protection order was issued.

(b.5)(I) “Protection order” means any order that prohibits the restrained person from contacting, harassing, injuring, intimidating, molesting, threatening, or touching any protected person, or from entering or remaining on premises, or from coming within a specified distance of a protected person or premises, that is issued by a court of this state or an authorized municipal court, and that is issued pursuant to:

(A) Article 14 of title 13, C.R.S., section 18-1-1001, section 19-2-707, C.R.S., section 19-4-111, C.R.S., or rule 365 of the Colorado rules of county court civil procedure;

(B) Sections 14-4-101 to 14-4-105, C.R.S., section 14-10-107, C.R.S., section 14-10-108, C.R.S., or section 19-3-316, C.R.S., as those sections existed prior to July 1, 2004; or

(C) An order issued as part of the proceedings concerning a criminal municipal ordinance violation.

(II) “Protection order” also includes any restraining order entered prior to July 1, 2003, and any foreign protection order as described in section 13-14-104, C.R.S.

(c) “Registry” means a computerized information system.

(d) “Restrained person” means the person identified in the order as the person prohibited from doing the specified act or acts.


(f) “Subsequent order” means an order which amends, modifies, supplements, or supersedes a protection order.

(2)(a) There is hereby created in the bureau a computerized central registry of protection orders which shall be accessible to any state law enforcement agency or to any local law enforcement agency having a terminal which communicates with the bureau. The central registry computers shall communicate with computers operated by the state judicial department.

(b) Protection orders and subsequent orders shall be entered into the registry by the clerk of the court issuing the protection order; except that orders issued pursuant to sections 18-1-1001 and 19-2-707, C.R.S., shall be entered into the registry only at the discretion of the court or upon motion of the district attorney. The clerk of the court issuing the protection order shall be responsible for updating the registry electronically in a timely manner to ensure the notice is as complete and accurate as is reasonably possible with regard to the information specified in subsection (3) of this section.

(c) The restrained person’s attorney, if present at the time the protection order or subsequent order is issued, shall notify the restrained person of the contents of such order if the restrained person was absent when such order was issued.

(d) Protection orders and subsequent orders shall be placed in the registry not later than twenty-four hours after they have been issued; except that, if the court issuing the protection order or subsequent order specifies that it be placed in the registry immediately, such order shall be placed in the registry immediately.

(e) Upon reaching the expiration date of a protection order or subsequent order, if any, the bureau shall note the termination in the registry.

(f) In the event the protection order or subsequent order does not have a termination date, the clerk of the issuing court shall be responsible for noting the termination of the protection order or subsequent order in the registry.

(3)(a) In addition to any information, notice, or warning required by law, a protection order or subsequent order entered into the registry shall contain the following information, if such information is available:

(I) The name, date of birth, sex, and physical description of the restrained person to the extent known;

(II) The date the order was issued and the effective date of the order if such date is different from the date the order was issued;

(III) The names of the protected persons and their dates of birth;

(IV) If the protection order is one prohibiting the restrained person from entering in, remaining upon, or coming within a specified distance of certain premises, the address of the premises and the distance limitation;

(V) The expiration date of the protection order, if any;

(VI) Whether the restrained person has been served with the protection order and, if so, the date and time of service; and

(VII) The amount of bail and any conditions of bond which the court has set in the event the restrained person has violated a protection order.

(VIII) An indication whether the conditions of the protection order are also conditions of a bail bond for a felony charge.

(b) If available, the protection order or subsequent order shall contain the fingerprint-based state identification number issued by the bureau to the restrained person.

Article 9. Offenses Against Public Peace, Order, and Decency

Part 1. Public Peace and Order

§ 18-9-111 Harassment – stalking.

(1) A person commits harassment if, with intent to harass, annoy, or alarm another person, he or she:

(a) Strikes, shoves, kicks, or otherwise touches a person or subjects him to physical contact; or

(b) In a public place directs obscene language or makes an obscene gesture to or at another person; or

(c) Follows a person in or about a public place; or


(e) Initiates communication with a person, anonymously or otherwise, by telephone, telephone network, data network, text message, instant message, computer, computer network, or computer system in a manner intended to harass or threaten bodily injury or property damage, or makes any comment, request, suggestion, or proposal by telephone, computer, computer network, or computer system that is obscene; or

(f) Makes a telephone call or causes a telephone to ring repeatedly, whether or not a conversation ensues, with no purpose of legitimate conversation; or

(g) Makes repeated communications at inconvenient hours that invade the privacy of another and interfere in the use and enjoyment of another’s home or private residence or other private property; or

(h) Repeatedly insults, taunts, challenges, or makes communications in offensively coarse language to, another in a manner likely to provoke a violent or disorderly response.

(1.5) As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires, “obscene” means a patently offensive description of ultimate sexual acts or solicitation to commit ultimate sexual acts, whether or not said ultimate sexual acts are normal or perverted, actual or simulated, including masturbation, cunnilingus, fellatio, anilingus, or excretory functions.

(2) Harassment pursuant to subsection (1) of this section is a class 3 misdemeanor; except that harassment is a class 1 misdemeanor if the offender commits harassment pursuant to subsection (1) of this section with the intent to intimidate or harass another person because of that person’s actual or perceived race, color, religion, ancestry, or national origin.

(3) Any act prohibited by paragraph (e) of subsection (1) of this section may be deemed to have occurred or to have been committed at the place at which the telephone call, electronic mail, or other electronic communication was either made or received.

 Article 13 Title 13. Of the Colorado Revised Statutes –  Courts and Court Procedure

Article 14. Civil Protection Orders

§ 13-14-101 Definitions

For purposes of this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) “Abuse of the elderly or of an at-risk adult” means mistreatment of a person who is sixty years of age or older or who is an at-risk adult as defined in section 26-3.1-101 (1), C.R.S., including but not limited to repeated acts that:

(a) Constitute verbal threats or assaults;

(b) Constitute verbal harassment;

(c) Result in the inappropriate use or the threat of inappropriate use of medications;

(d) Result in the inappropriate use of physical or chemical restraints;

(e) Result in the misuse of power or authority granted to a person through a power of attorney or by a court in a guardianship or conservatorship proceeding that results in unreasonable confinement or restriction of liberty; or

(f) Constitute threats or acts of violence against, or the taking, transferring, concealing, harming, or disposing of, an animal owned, possessed, leased, anticonvulsant kept, or held by the elderly or at-risk adult, which threats or acts are intended to coerce, control, punish, intimidate, or exact revenge upon the elderly or at-risk adult.

(1.5) “Adult” means a person eighteen years of age or older.

(2) “Domestic abuse” means any act or threatened act of violence that is committed by any person against another person to whom the actor is currently or was formerly related, or with whom the actor is living or has lived in the same domicile, or with whom the actor is involved or has been involved in an intimate relationship. “Domestic abuse” may also include any act or threatened act of violence against:

(a) The minor children of either of the parties; or

(b) An animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by either of the parties or by a minor child of either of the parties, which threat or act is intended to coerce, control, punish, intimidate, or exact revenge upon either of the parties or a minor child of either of the parties.

(2.2) “Minor child” means a person under eighteen years of age.

(2.3) “Protected person” means the person or persons identified in a protection order as the person or persons for whose benefit the protection order was issued.

(2.4)(a) “Protection order” means any order that prohibits the restrained person from contacting, harassing, injuring, intimidating, molesting, threatening, or touching any protected person, or from threatening, taking, transferring, concealing, harming, or disposing of an animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by a protected person, or from entering or remaining on premises, or from coming within a specified distance of a protected person or premises or any other provision to protect the protected person from imminent danger to life or health that is issued by a court of this state or a municipal court and that is issued pursuant to:

(I) This article, section 18-1-1001, C.R.S., section 19-2-707, C.R.S., section 19-4-111, C.R.S., or rule 365 of the Colorado rules of county court civil procedure;

(II) Sections 14-4-101 to 14-4-105, C.R.S., section 14-10-107, C.R.S., section 14-10-108, C.R.S., or section 19-3-316, C.R.S., as those sections existed prior to July 1, 2004;

(III) An order issued as part of the proceedings concerning a criminal municipal ordinance violation; or

(IV) Any other order of a court that prohibits a person from contacting, harassing, injuring, intimidating, molesting, threatening, or touching a person, or from threatening, taking, transferring, concealing, harming, or disposing of an animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by a person, or from entering or remaining on premises, or from coming within a specified distance of a protected person or premises.

(b) For purposes of this article only, “protection order” includes any order that amends, modifies, supplements, or supersedes the initial protection order. “Protection order” also includes any restraining order entered prior to July 1, 2003, and any foreign protection order as defined in section 13-14-104.

(2.8) “Restrained person” means a person identified in a protection order as a person prohibited from doing a specified act or acts.

(3) “Stalking” means the crime of stalking as described in section 18-3-602, C.R.S.

§ 13-14-102 Civil protection orders – legislative declaration.

(1)(a) The general assembly hereby finds that the issuance and enforcement of protection orders are of paramount importance in the state of Colorado because protection orders promote safety, reduce violence, and prevent serious harm and death. In order to improve the public’s access to protection orders and to assure careful judicial consideration of requests and effective law enforcement, there shall be two processes for obtaining protection orders within the state of Colorado, a simplified civil process and a mandatory criminal process.

(b) The general assembly further finds and declares that:

(I) Domestic violence is not limited to physical threats of violence and harm but includes financial control, document control, property control, and other types of control that make a victim more likely to return to an abuser due to fear of retaliation or inability to meet basic needs;

(II) Victims of domestic violence in many cases are unable to access resources to seek lasting safety options;

(III) These victims need the assistance of additional court orders to meet their immediate needs for food, shelter, transportation, medical care, and child care at the time they go to court for a civil protection order; and

(IV) These additional court orders are needed not only in cases that end in dissolution of marriage but also in cases in which reconciliation is appropriate, as well as in other cases.

(1.5) Any municipal court of record, if authorized by the municipal governing body; any county court; and any district, probate, or juvenile court shall have original concurrent jurisdiction to issue a temporary or permanent civil protection order against an adult or against a juvenile who is ten years of age or older for any of the following purposes:

(a) To prevent assaults and threatened bodily harm;

(b) To prevent domestic abuse;

(c) To prevent emotional abuse of the elderly or of an at-risk adult;

(d) To prevent stalking.

(2) Any civil protection order issued pursuant to this section shall be issued using the standardized set of forms developed by the state court administrator pursuant to section 13-1-136.

(2.5) Venue for filing a motion or complaint pursuant to this section is proper in any county where the acts that are the subject of the motion or complaint occur, in any county where one of the parties resides, or in any county where one of the parties is employed. This requirement for venue does not prohibit the change of venue to any other county appropriate under applicable law.

(3) A motion for a temporary civil protection order shall be set for hearing, which hearing may be ex parte, at the earliest possible time and shall take precedence over all matters, except those matters of the same character that have been on the court docket for a longer period of time. The court shall hear all such motions as expeditiously as possible.

(3.3) Any district court, in an action commenced under the “Uniform Dissolution of Marriage Act”, article 10 of title 14, C.R.S., shall have authority to issue temporary and permanent protection orders pursuant to the provisions of subsection (1.5) of this section. Such protection order may be as a part of a motion for a protection order accompanied by an affidavit filed in an action brought under article 10 of title 14, C.R.S. Either party may request the court to issue a protection order consistent with any other provision of this article.

(3.7) At the time a protection order is requested pursuant to this section, the court shall inquire about, and the requesting party and such party’s attorney shall have an independent duty to disclose, knowledge such party and such party’s attorney may have concerning the existence of any prior protection or restraining order of any court addressing in whole or in part the subject matter of the requested protection order. In the event there are conflicting restraining or protection orders, the court shall consider, as its first priority, issues of public safety. An order that prevents assaults, threats of assault, or other bodily harm shall be given precedence over an order that deals with the disposition of property or other tangible assets. Every effort shall be made by judicial officers to clarify conflicting orders.

(4)(a) A temporary civil protection order may be issued if the issuing judge or magistrate finds that an imminent danger exists to the person or persons seeking protection under the civil protection order. In determining whether an imminent danger exists to the life or health of one or more persons, the court shall consider when the most recent incident of abuse or threat of harm occurred as well as all other relevant evidence concerning the safety and protection of the persons seeking the protection order. However, the court shall not deny a petitioner the relief requested solely because of a lapse of time between an act of abuse or threat of harm and filing of the petition for a protection order.

(b) If the judge or magistrate finds that an imminent danger exists to the employees of a business entity, he or she may issue a civil protection order in the name of the business for the protection of the employees. An employer shall not be liable for failing to obtain a civil protection order in the name of the business for the protection of the employees and patrons.

(5) Upon the filing of a complaint duly verified, alleging that the defendant has committed acts that would constitute grounds for a civil protection order, any judge or magistrate, after hearing the evidence and being fully satisfied therein that sufficient cause exists, may issue a temporary civil protection order to prevent the actions complained of and a citation directed to the defendant commanding the defendant to appear before the court at a specific time and date and to show cause, if any, why said temporary civil protection order should not be made permanent. In addition, the court may order any other relief that the court deems appropriate. Complaints may be filed by persons seeking protection for themselves or for others as provided in section 26-3.1-102(1)(b) and (1)(c), C.R.S.

(6) A copy of the complaint together with a copy of the temporary civil protection order and a copy of the citation shall be served upon the defendant and upon the person to be protected, if the complaint was filed by another person, in accordance with the rules for service of process as provided in rule 304 of the rules of county court civil procedure or rule 4 of the Colorado rules of civil procedure. The citation shall inform the defendant that, if the defendant fails to appear in court in accordance with the terms of the citation, a bench warrant may be issued for the arrest of the defendant and the temporary protection order previously entered by the court shall be made permanent without further notice or service upon the defendant.

(7) The return date of the citation shall be set not more than fourteen days after the issuance of the temporary civil protection order and citation. If the petitioner is unable to serve the defendant in that period, the court shall extend the temporary protection order previously issued, continue the show of cause hearing, and issue an alias citation stating the date and time to which the hearing is continued. The petitioner may thereafter request, and the court may grant, additional continuances as needed if the petitioner has still been unable to serve the defendant.

(8)(a) Any person against whom a temporary protection order is issued pursuant to this section, which temporary protection order excludes such person from a shared residence, shall be permitted to return to such shared residence one time to obtain sufficient undisputed personal effects as are necessary for such person to maintain a normal standard of living during any period prior to a hearing concerning such order. Such person against whom a temporary protection order is issued shall be permitted to return to such shared residence only if such person is accompanied at all times while the person is at or in such shared residence by a peace officer.

(b) When any person is served with a temporary protection order issued against such person excluding such person from a shared residence, such temporary protection order shall contain a notification in writing to such person of such person’s ability to return to such shared residence pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (8). Such written notification shall be in bold print and conspicuously placed in such temporary protection order. No judge, magistrate, or other judicial officer shall issue a temporary protection order that does not comply with this subsection (8).

(c) Any person against whom a temporary protection order is issued pursuant to this section, which temporary protection order excludes such person from a shared residence, shall be entitled to avail himself or herself of the forcible entry and detainer remedies available pursuant to article 40 of this title. However, such person shall not be entitled to return to the residence until such time as a valid writ of restitution is executed, filed with the court issuing the protection order, and, if necessary, the protection order is modified accordingly. A landlord whose lessee has been excluded from a residence pursuant to the terms of a protection order is also entitled to avail himself or herself of the remedies available pursuant to article 40 of this title.

(9)(a) On the return date of the citation, or on the day to which the hearing has been continued, the judge or magistrate shall examine the record and the evidence. If upon such examination the judge or magistrate is of the opinion that the defendant has committed acts constituting grounds for issuance of a civil protection order and that unless restrained will continue to commit such acts, the judge or magistrate shall order the temporary civil protection order to be made permanent or order a permanent civil protection order with different provisions from the temporary civil protection order. The judge or magistrate shall inform said defendant that a violation of the civil protection order shall constitute a criminal offense pursuant to section 18-6-803.5, C.R.S., or shall constitute contempt of court and subject the defendant to such punishment as may be provided by law. If the defendant fails to appear before the court for the show cause hearing at the time and on the date identified in the citation issued by the court and the court finds that the defendant was properly served with the temporary protection order and such citation, it shall not be necessary to re-serve the defendant to make the protection order permanent. However, if the court modifies the protection order on the motion of the protected party, the modified protection order shall be served upon the defendant.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subsection (9), the judge or magistrate, after examining the record and the evidence, for good cause shown, may continue the temporary protection order and the show cause hearing to a date certain not to exceed one hundred twenty days after the date of the hearing if he or she determines such continuance would be in the best interests of the parties and if both parties are present at the hearing and agree to the continuance. In addition, each party may request one continuance for a period not to exceed fourteen days which the judge or magistrate, after examining the record and the evidence, may grant upon a finding of good cause. The judge or magistrate shall inform the defendant that a violation of the temporary civil protection order shall constitute a criminal offense pursuant to section 18-6-803.5, C.R.S., or shall constitute contempt of court and subject the defendant to such punishment as may be provided by law.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this subsection (9), for a protection order filed in a proceeding commenced under the “Uniform Dissolution of Marriage Act”, article 10 of title 14, C.R.S., the court may, on the motion of either party if both parties agree to the continuance, continue the temporary protection order until the time of the final decree or final disposition of the action.

(10) The court shall electronically transfer into the central registry of protection orders established pursuant to section 18-6-803.7, C.R.S., a copy of any order issued pursuant to this section and shall deliver a copy of such order to the protected party.

(11) If the order has not been personally served, the peace officer responding to a call for assistance shall serve a copy of said order on the person named defendant therein and shall write the time, date, and manner of service on the protected person’s copy of such order and shall sign such statement.

(12) The duties of peace officers enforcing the civil protection order shall be in accordance with section 18-6-803.5, C.R.S., and any rules adopted by the Colorado supreme court pursuant to said section.

(13) A person failing to comply with any order of the court issued pursuant to this section shall be found in contempt of court or may be prosecuted for violation of a civil protection order pursuant to section 18-6-803.5, C.R.S.

(14) At the time a civil protection order is requested, the court shall inquire about, and the requesting party and such party’s attorney shall have an independent duty to disclose, any knowledge such party and such party’s attorney may have concerning the existence of any prior protection orders of any court addressing in whole or in part the subject matter of the requested civil protection order.

(15) A municipal court of record that is authorized by its municipal governing body to issue protection or restraining orders and any county court, in connection with issuing a civil protection order, shall have original concurrent jurisdiction with the district court to issue such additional orders as the municipal or county court deems necessary for the protection of persons. Such additional orders may include, but are not limited to:

(a) Restraining a party from threatening, molesting, or injuring any other party or the minor child of either of the parties;

(b) Restraining a party from contacting any other party or the minor child of either of the parties;

(c) Excluding a party from the family home upon a showing that physical or emotional harm would otherwise result;

(d) Excluding a party from the home of another party upon a showing that physical or emotional harm would otherwise result;

(e)(I) Awarding temporary care and control of any minor children of either party involved for a period of not more than one hundred twenty days.

(II) If temporary care and control is awarded, the order may include parenting time rights for the other party involved and any conditions of such parenting time, including the supervision of such parenting time by a third party who agrees on the record to the terms of the supervised parenting time and any costs associated with supervised parenting time, if necessary. If the restrained party is unable to pay the ordered costs, the court shall not place such responsibility with publicly funded agencies. If the court finds that the safety of any child or the protected party cannot be ensured with any form of parenting time reasonably available, the court may deny parenting time.

(II.5) The court may award interim decision-making responsibility of a child to a person entitled to bring an action for the allocation of parental responsibilities under section 14-10-123, C.R.S., when such award is reasonably related to preventing domestic abuse as defined in section 13-14-101(2), or preventing the child from witnessing domestic abuse.

(III) The standard for the award of temporary care and control or interim decision-making responsibility shall be in accordance with section 14-10-124, C.R.S.

(f) Such other relief as the court deems appropriate;

(f.2) Restraining a party from threatening, molesting, injuring, killing, taking, transferring, encumbering, concealing, or disposing of an animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by any other party, a minor child of any other party, or an elderly or at-risk adult;

(f.4) Specifying arrangements for possession and care of an animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by any other party, a minor child of any other party, or an elderly or at-risk adult.

(g)(I) A temporary injunction that may be issued by the court that, upon personal service or upon waiver and acceptance of service by the defendant, is to be in effect against the defendant for a period determined to be appropriate by the court and restrains the defendant from ceasing to make payments for mortgage or rent, insurance, utilities or related services, transportation, medical care, or child care when the defendant has a prior existing duty or legal obligation or from transferring, encumbering, concealing, or in any way disposing of personal effects or real property, except in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life. The restrained party shall be required to account to the court for all extraordinary expenditures made after the injunction is in effect. Any injunction issued shall not exceed one hundred twenty days after the issuance of the permanent civil protection order.

(II) The provisions of the injunction shall be printed on the summons, and the petition and the injunction shall become an order of the court upon fulfillment of the requirements of subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (g).

(III) Nothing in this paragraph (g) shall preclude either party from applying to the district court for further temporary orders, an expanded temporary injunction, or modification or revocation. Any subsequent order issued by the district court as part of a domestic matter involving the parties shall supersede an injunction made pursuant to this paragraph (g).

(16) Any order for temporary care and control issued pursuant to subsection (15) of this section shall be governed by the “Uniform Child-custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act”, article 13 of title 14, C.R.S.

(17) Any order granted pursuant to paragraph (c) or (e) of subsection (15) of this section shall terminate whenever a subsequent order regarding the same subject matter is granted pursuant to the “Uniform Dissolution of Marriage Act”, article 10 of title 14, C.R.S., or the “Uniform Child-custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act”, article 13 of title 14, C.R.S., or the “Colorado Children’s Code”, title 19, C.R.S.

(17.5)(a) Nothing in this section shall preclude the protected party from applying to the court at any time for modification, including but not limited to a modification of the duration of a protection order, or dismissal of a temporary or permanent protection order issued pursuant to this section. The restrained party may apply to the court for modification, including but not limited to a modification of the duration of the protection order, or dismissal of a permanent protection order pursuant to this section. However, if a permanent protection order has been issued or if a motion for modification or dismissal of a permanent protection order has been filed by the restrained party, whether or not it was granted, no motion to modify or dismiss may be filed by the restrained party within four years after issuance of the permanent order or after disposition of the prior motion.

(b)(I)(A) Notwithstanding any provision of paragraph (a) of this subsection (17.5) to the contrary, after issuance of the permanent protection order, if the restrained party is convicted of any misdemeanor other than the original misdemeanor that formed the basis for the issuance of the protection order, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by a court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, as that term is defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), C.R.S., or of any felony, then the protection order shall remain permanent and shall not be modified or dismissed by the court.

(B) Notwithstanding the prohibition in sub-subparagraph (A) of this subparagraph (I), a protection order may be modified or dismissed on the motion of the protected person, or the person’s attorney, parent or legal guardian if a minor, or conservator of legal guardian if one has been appointed; except that this sub-subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the parent, legal guardian, or conservator is the restrained person.

(II) A court shall not consider a motion to modify a protection order filed by a restrained party pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (17.5) unless the court receives the results of a fingerprint-based criminal history record check of the restrained party that is conducted within ninety days prior to the filing of the motion. The fingerprint-based criminal history record check shall include a review of the state and federal criminal history records maintained by the Colorado bureau of investigation and federal bureau of investigation. The restrained party shall be responsible for supplying fingerprints to the Colorado bureau of investigation and to the federal bureau of investigation and paying the costs of the record checks. The restrained party may be required by the court to provide certified copies of any criminal dispositions that are not reflected in the state or federal records and any other dispositions that are unknown.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the issuing court shall retain jurisdiction to enforce, modify, or dismiss a temporary or permanent protection order.

(d) Any motion filed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (17.5) shall be heard by the court. The party moving for a modification or dismissal of a temporary or permanent protection order pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (17.5) shall affect personal service on the other party with a copy of the motion and notice of the hearing on the motion, as provided by rule 4(e) of the Colorado rules of civil procedure. The moving party shall bear the burden of proof to show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the modification is appropriate or that a dismissal is appropriate because the protection order is no longer necessary. If the protected party has requested that his or her address be kept confidential, the court shall not disclose such information to the restrained party or any other person, except as otherwise authorized by law.

(e) In considering whether to modify or dismiss a protection order issued pursuant to this section, the court shall consider all relevant factors, including but not limited to:

(I) Whether the restrained party has complied with the terms of the protection order;

(II) Whether the restrained party has met the conditions associated with the protection order, if any;

(III) Whether the restrained party has been ordered to participate in and complete a domestic violence treatment program provided by an entity approved pursuant to section 16-11.8-103 (4)(a)(III)(C), C.R.S., and whether the restrained party has completed the program;

(IV) Whether the restrained party has voluntarily participated in any domestic violence treatment program or other counseling addressing domestic violence or anger management issues;

(V) The time that has lapsed since the protection order was issued;

(VI) When the last incident of abuse or threat of harm occurred or other relevant information concerning the safety and protection of the protected person;

(VII) Whether, since the issuance of the protection order, the restrained person has been convicted of or pled guilty to a crime, the underlying factual basis of which has been found by a court on the record to include an act of domestic violence, as that term is defined in section 18-6-800.3(1), C.R.S., other than the original offense, if any, that formed the basis for the issuance of the protection order;

(VIII) Whether any other restraining orders or protective orders or protection orders have been subsequently issued against the restrained person pursuant to this section or any other law of this state or any other state; and

(IX) The circumstances of the parties, including the relative proximity of the parties’ residences and work places and whether the parties have minor children together.

(18) A court shall not grant a mutual protection order to prevent domestic abuse for the protection of opposing parties unless each party has met his or her burden of proof as described in subsection (4) of this section and the court makes separate and sufficient findings of fact to support the issuance of the mutual protection order to prevent domestic abuse for the protection of opposing parties. No party may waive the requirements set forth in this subsection (18).

(20) Enactment of this section shall not affect the effectiveness of any civil protection or restraining order issued prior to July 1, 1999.

(21)(a) The court may assess a filing fee against a petitioner seeking relief under this section; except that the court may not assess a filing fee against a petitioner if the court determines the petitioner is seeking the protection order as a victim of domestic abuse as defined by section 13-14-101(2); domestic violence as defined by section 18-6-800.3(1), C.R.S.; stalking as described in section 18-3-602, C.R.S.; sexual assault as defined by section 18-3-402, C.R.S.; or unlawful sexual contact as defined by section 18-3-404, C.R.S. Petitioners shall be provided the necessary number of certified copies at no cost.

(b) Fees for service of process may not be assessed by a state agency or public agency against petitioners seeking relief under this section as a victim of conduct consistent with the following: Domestic abuse as defined by section 13-14-101(2); domestic violence as defined by section 18-6-800.3(1), C.R.S.; stalking as described in section 18-3-602, C.R.S.; sexual assault as defined by section 18-3-402, C.R.S.; or unlawful sexual contact as defined by section 18-3-404, C.R.S.

(c) At the permanent protection order hearing, the court may require the respondent to pay the filing fee and service-of-process fees, as established by the state agency, political subdivision, or public agency pursuant to a fee schedule, and to reimburse the petitioner for costs incurred in bringing the action.

13-14-104. Foreign protection orders.

(1) Definitions. As used in this section, “foreign protection order” means any protection or restraining order, injunction, or other order issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including temporary or final orders, other than child support or custody orders, issued by a civil or criminal court of another state, an Indian tribe, or a U.S. territory or commonwealth.

(2) Full faith and credit. A foreign protection order shall be accorded full faith and credit by the courts of this state as if the order were an order of this state, notwithstanding section 14-11-101, C.R.S., and article 53 of this title, if the order meets all of the following conditions:

(a) The foreign protection order was obtained after providing the person against whom the protection order was sought reasonable notice and an opportunity to be heard sufficient to protect his or her due process rights. If the foreign protection order is an ex parte injunction or order, the person against whom it was obtained shall have been given notice and an opportunity to be heard within a reasonable time after the order was issued sufficient to protect his or her due process rights.

(b) The court that issued the order had jurisdiction over the parties and over the subject matter;

(c) The order complies with section 13-14-102 (18).

(3) Process. A person entitled to protection under a foreign protection order may, but shall not be required to, file such order in the district or county court by filing with such court a certified copy of such order, which shall be entered into the central registry of protection orders created in section 18-6-803.7, C.R.S. The certified order shall be accompanied by an affidavit in which the protected person affirms to the best of his or her knowledge that the order has not been changed or modified since it was issued. There shall be no filing fee charged. It is the responsibility of the protected person to notify the court if the protection order is subsequently modified.

(4) Enforcement. Filing of the foreign protection order in the central registry or otherwise domesticating or registering the order pursuant to article 53 of this title or section 14-11-101, C.R.S., is not a prerequisite to enforcement of the foreign protection order. A peace officer shall presume the validity of, and enforce in accordance with the provisions of this article, a foreign protection order that appears to be an authentic court order that has been provided to the peace officer by any source. If the protected party does not have a copy of the foreign protection order on his or her person and the peace officer determines that a protection order exists through the central registry, the national crime information center as described in 28 U.S.C. sec. 534, or communication with appropriate authorities, the peace officer shall enforce the order. A peace officer may rely upon the statement of any person protected by a foreign protection order that it remains in effect. A peace officer who is acting in good faith when enforcing a foreign protection order shall not be civilly or criminally liable pursuant to section 18-6-803.5 (5), C.R.S.

Title 14. Domestic Matters

Article 4. Domestic Abuse

Violations of orders.

A person failing to comply with any order of the court issued pursuant to this article shall be found in contempt of court and, in addition, may be punished as provided in section 18-6-803.5, C.R.S.

Colorado Domestic Violence Lawyer